There are different types of processors in embedded systems. A processor is a part of the computer which can be considered a basic building block in the construction of any computer system. It is basically one or more semiconductors that have been configured to coordinate and execute methods by combinations of specific electrical signals through the use of input and output devices known as buses, addresses and control registers.
- General Purpose Processors (GPP)
The general purpose processor in embedded system is responsible for controlling the data exchange between the microprocessor and other peripherals. The GPP contains a large amount of memory, which is commonly used for managing tasks such as scheduling, interrupt handling, and other system management functions.
The GPP is the core of a system, and it is the heart of the processor. The GPP is responsible for executing instructions, data processing and memory management. It also controls the flow of control to other components in the system. General Purpose Processors (GPP). GPPs are the most common type of processor in embedded systems. They can be used to control peripherals like displays, motors, etc., and perform basic arithmetic operations such as addition and subtraction.General-purpose processors are typically used in embedded systems to perform the functions of the system. They can be designed to operate on a wide range of applications and they are very easy to program. The performance of general-purpose processors is not very good when compared to microprocessors, but they have several advantages over microprocessors. These include:
- Low power consumption – General purpose processors consume less power than microprocessors do, hence reducing battery drain for portable devices.
- Large memory size – General purpose processors provide large amounts of memory which can be used for storing data or instructions that need to be processed quickly by the processor.
- Large I/O ports – General-purpose processors have large I/O ports which are useful for interfacing with input/output devices such as keyboards, displays and speakers etc., which makes them ideal for controlling electronic equipment such as LED displays or industrial machinery.
A microprocessor is a very complex piece of hardware that performs operations using a set of instructions stored in its internal registers. The microprocessor is usually connected to other components such as memory, input/output ports and peripheral devices through an I/O bus. Microprocessors have a single-core design and provide fast responses to interrupts and other events. They also support pipelining, which allows multiple instructions to be executed at the same time. Microprocessors are used in a wide variety of applications including video game consoles and automobiles.
In embedded systems, a microcontroller is a small circuit that receives commands from an external processor (the main controller) and decodes them into actions or sets of operations. Microcontrollers are typically used for controlling the operation of an entire PCB (Printed Circuit Board) or some other hardware component. They may also be used to control the overall operation of a system by setting up the timing requirements, starting components, and performing calculations necessary for operation.
4. Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a processor that performs computations on discrete-time samples of input data. The number of samples per cycle varies depending on the implementation details; however, most DSPs operate at 64 bits per sample. The input data is typically converted from analog to digital format by ADCs or A/D converters prior to processing by the DSP core.
5. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs)
Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is the most expensive form of the integrated circuit. It has been designed to perform one task well, such as processing a specific algorithm or performing specific calculations. The ASIC is usually very small and consumes less power. It may be used in devices where space is at a premium, such as in electronic watches or handheld computers.